Diagnosis and Division of Cancer

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The earlier the cancer is diagnosed, the greater the chance of recovery for the sufferer. Therefore, it is highly recommended for people who are at risk of getting cancer to consult with doctors regarding the risk factors they have. Some steps of cancer diagnosis that doctors commonly do are: • Physical examination. Physical examination performed to show signs of cancer can be a check for lumps under the skin, changes in skin color, and swelling of organs. • Laboratory test. Examination of blood and urine can be done to check abnormal body conditions. An example is in cases of leukemia, where doctors can carry out laboratory tests in the form of calculating complete blood cell counts to diagnose the number of leukocyte cells that increase abnormally. • Imaging tests (imaging test). This test serves to map internal organs and bones without surgery. Imaging tests can be in the form of CT scans, bone scans, MRIs, PET scans, ultrsound examinations, X-rays, and others. • Biopsy. This examination is done by taking a sample of tissue that is suspected of having cancer to be observed using a microscope in the laboratory. Through a microscope, the structure of the tissue sample can be observed more clearly. Normal cells are usually seen as cells of uniform size and neatly arranged. While in cancer cells, the size will look different and the arrangement is not neat. Biopsy is the most accurate examination in determining whether a person has cancer or not. After these tests and the patient is confirmed to have cancer, the doctor will determine the level (stage) of the cancer. In general, the division of cancer stages is as follows: • Stage 1. Indicates that cancer is small and still remains in the organ where the cancer begins. • Stage 2. Indicates that the cancer has not spread to the surrounding tissue, but the size of the cancer is greater than stage 1. In some types of cancer, stage 2 means that cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes closest to the cancer organ. • Stage 3. The size of the cancer is greater than stage 2 and cancer cells have begun to spread to other tissues or organs, and to lymph nodes around cancer. • Stage 4. Indicates that the cancer has spread to other organs or tissues. In addition to the stadium level system, also known as the TNM level system, the details are as follows: • T (Tumor). Describes cancer size and spread of cancer to surrounding tissues. To describe the size of cancer is used numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, with number 1 indicating the smallest and the 4th largest size. • N (Nodus). Describes the spread of cancer to lymph nodes (lymph nodes) around cancer. To describe the spread of cancer, numbers 0, 1, 2, 3 with 0 indicate that the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes and 3 indicates that many lymph nodes have cancer. • M (Metastasis). Describes the spread of cancer to other organs. The number 0 indicates that the cancer has not spread to other organs and the number 1 indicates that the cancer has spread to other organs. In the case of cancers diagnosed in the early stages, a condition can be found in the form of abnormal cells in the body. This collection of cells can develop into cancer in the future, but is too small to form a tumor. This condition is called dysplasia or carcinoma in situ which in the division of cancer levels is called stage 0 cancer. Some doctors call this condition non-invasive cancer. Carcinoma in situ is generally difficult to detect due to its very small size, except where it is easily visible (for example on the skin). Some types of screening tests can also detect carcinoma in situ in the breast or cervix. Determination of the level of malignancy and spread of cancer is a very important part in cancer diagnosis because it will determine the type of treatment that is most effective for patients.